Circumcision — did you know?


Part 1

Part 1, Substantiating References:

58. Paul M.N. Werker, Alex S.C. Terng, and Moshe Kon, ‘The Prepuce Free Flap: Dissection Feasibility Study and Clinical Application of a Super-Thin New Flap’, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 102, no. 4 (1998): 1075–82; Godfrey Kigozi, Maria Wawer, Absalom Ssettube et al., ‘Foreskin Surface Area and HIV Acquisition in Rakai, Uganda (Size Matters)’, AIDS (London, England) 23, no. 16 (2009): 2209–13. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328330eda8.

59. J.R. Taylor, A.P. Lockwood, and A.J. Taylor, ‘The Prepuce: Specialized Mucosa of the Penis and Its Loss to Circumcision’, British Journal of Urology 77, no. 2 (1996): 291–95. doi:10. 1016/S0022-3468(96)90213-4.

60. Morris L. Sorrells, James L. Snyder, Mark D. Reiss et al., ‘Fine-Touch Pressure Thresholds in the Adult Penis’, BJU International 99, no. 4 (2007): 864–69. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06685.x; Paul M. Fleiss, Frederick M. Hodges, and Robert S. Van Howe,‘Immunological Functions of the Human Prepuce’, Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, no. 5 (1998): 364–67. doi:10.1136/sti.74.5.364; Christopher J. Cold and John R. Taylor, ‘The Prepuce’, BJU International 83, no. S1 (1999): 34–44; CIRP, ‘Foreskin Sexual Function’ Circumcision Information Resource Pages (2008),; Doctors Opposing Circumcision, ‘The Prepuce’ (2000),

Part 2


Part 3

Part 3, Substantiating References:

78. F.E. Okonofua, U. Larsen, F. Oronsaye et al., ‘The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Correlates of Sexual and Gynaecological Morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria’, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 109 (2002): 1089–96; Linda Morison, Caroline Scherf, Gloria Ekpo et al., ‘The Long-Term Reproductive Health Consequences of Female Genital Cutting in Rural Gambia’ 6, no. 8 (2001): 643–53; S. Johnsdotter and B. Essén, ‘Sexual Health among Young Somali Women in Sweden: Living with Conflicting Culturally Determined Sexual Ideologies’, inInternational Network to Analyze, Communicate and Transform the Campaign against FGC/FGM/FC (Alexandria, Egypt, 2004); L. Catania, J. Bladaro-Verde, S. Sirigatti et al., ‘Preliminary Results of Research about 137 Women’s Sexuality with FGM/C’, inInternational Network to Analyze, Communicate and Transform the Campaign against FGC/FGM/FC (Alexandria, Egypt, 2004); Samuel Dibieamaka Nwajei and Andrew Iwesim Otiono, ‘Female Genital Mutilation: Implications for THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS 25 Female Sexuality’, Women’s Studies International Forum 26, no. 6 (2003): 575–80. doi:10. 1016/j.wsif.2003.09.011.

79. Nahid Toubia, ‘FGM and the Responsibility of Health Care Professionals’, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 46 (1994): 127–35.